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Happy New Year of the Horse!

Horse and Groom, after Li Gonglin, 1347, Zhao Yong , (Chinese, 1291-1361), Ink and color on paper, F1945.32

Horse and Groom, after Li Gonglin, 1347,
Zhao Yong , (Chinese, 1291-1361), Ink and color on paper, F1945.32

The lunar new year begins today and celebrates the year of the horse, one of the twelve-year cycle of animals that appear in the Chinese zodiac. Dating from as early as 1000 BCE, the traditional Chinese method of counting years is based on the sixty-year rotation of the planet Jupiter (known as the “year star”) around the sun. Each sixty-year period is divided into five cycles of twelve years, and each of the twelve years is associated with a particular animal. In general, each year contains twelve lunar months of twenty-eight or twenty-nine days. As a result, lunar years vary in length and do not start or end at the same time each year. The current Year of the Horse begins today, and is observed through February 18, 2015.

According to archaeological discoveries, the character for “horse” (ma) appears in the most ancient form of Chinese writing, which dates from the fourteenth to eleventh century BCE. Surviving painted images of horses date from around the fourth century BCE. Since the species of horse native to China were not as large or strong as those from Central Asia, traders during the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE) imported the highly coveted “heavenly horses” (tianma) from the Central Asian kingdom of Ferghana.

Horses did not emerge as a prominent independent category in the Chinese painting tradition until the Tang dynasty (618–907). From that time on, horses appear as a recurring theme, especially in depictions of travel, trade, hunting, and military exercises and in genre paintings showing the nomadic tribes that lived to the north and west of China.

One more thing: Those born in the Year of the Horse (1930, 1942, 1954, 1966, 1978, 1990, 2002, and 2014) are said to be intelligent, strong, and energetic with an outgoing nature. They enjoy interacting with others and are good at multi-tasking, although they rarely finish projects because they’re off to the next one before they finish the last. Typically they have money issues, and when it comes to matters of the heart, they fall hard and fast.

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Yoga: A Transforming Exhibition

Crowds gathered for one last look at Yoga: The Art of Transformation during closing weekend.

Crowds gathered for one last look at Yoga: The Art of Transformation during closing weekend (photos by Neil Greentree).

We said goodbye to Yoga: The Art of Transformation over the weekend with tours and talks and ImaginAsia programs for young visitors (where else could you make your own chakra?). More than ten thousand people visited the exhibition on Saturday and Sunday to take one last look at stunning paintings and sculptures that brought to life the strong visual history of an ancient practice. Yoga newbies as well as longtime practitioners offered praise for the exhibition, as they patiently waited on lines to enter the galleries.

Taking a close look at yoginis during closing weekend.

Taking a close look at yoginis during closing weekend.

For those of you who missed the exhibition, or want to see it again, start packing your bags! Yoga: The Art of Transformation will be on view at the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco (February 21–May 25) and at the Cleveland Museum of Art (June 22–September 7).

#artofyoga

Posted by in South Asian and Himalayan Art | No Comments

Ara Güler and the Lost City of Aphrodisias

Aphrodisias by Ara Güler

The “Aphrodisias of Life,” photographed by Ara Güler

Johns Hopkins University students Christie YoungSmith and Gracie Golden helped curate the exhibition In Focus: Ara Güler’s Anatolia.

In 1958, Hayat magazine sent Turkish photojournalist Ara Güler to document the opening of the Kemer Dam in Aydin, Turkey. On the way back, his taxi driver got lost, resulting in the discovery of the ancient city of Aphrodisias, a cult center devoted to the goddess Aphrodite.

Because they could not find their way, Güler and his driver decided to spend the night in Geyre, a remote mountain village. While inquiring in the local coffeehouse about a place to stay, Güler noticed men playing card games on top of an ancient Roman column capital. Realizing that the town was built atop ruins, Güler awoke early the next morning and was led by children around the site, photographing the temple of Aphrodite, a hippodrome, and many sarcophagi. When he returned to Istanbul, he sent the images to the Architectural Review, and soon received a telegram from Horizon magazine requesting color photos and an article to go alongside the photo essay. Güler suggested Professor Kenan T. Erim as the author for this article. The New York University professor accepted the job and went on to devote his life to excavating Aphrodisias.

Aphrodisias by Ara Güler

The ruins of Aphrodisias, photographed by Ara Güler

When Erim began his excavations, archaeologists requested that the town of Geyre move two kilometers away. Güler has commented that the Aphrodisias he first visited was one of life: the people of Geyre put the relics to practical use in their daily lives. Now that the town has moved and Aphrodisias serves as a tourist attraction and excavation site, this “Aphrodisias of life” is gone. Güler says the site is now just history.

When he captured the vanishing town of Geyre, Güler accomplished one of his main photographic goals: to document change. Speaking about his images, Güler has said, “I have attempted to collect images of a vanished or vanishing way of life.”

Learn more about Aphrodisias and Güler’s effort to capture change in the exhibition In Focus: Ara Güler’s Anatolia, on view at the Sackler through May 4, 2014.

Next up in this blog series, we’ll take a look at Ara Güler’s work in the Freer|Sackler Archives. Follow the conversation using hashtag #AraGuler.

Posted by in From the Archives | No Comments