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Performing Indonesia: Sumarsam

Performing Indonesia

Performing Indonesia: Islamic Intersections, our third festival of Indonesian music, dance, and theater, celebrates some of the many manifestations of Islamic culture in the island nation, which is home to more Muslims than any other country. We’re interviewing some of the people involved with the festival. Sumarsam, a scholar, puppeteer, and professor of music at Wesleyan University, helped plan tomorrow night’s lecture series. He also will share his talents at our shadow-puppet play (wayang kulit) Thursday evening.

You have a long history with music, particularly the gamelan. How has that passion intersected with your interest in puppeteering? 

I began playing gamelan when I was seven years old, in the village where I was born, in East Java. That was also the time when I became interested in wayang puppet plays, which gamelan groups often accompany.

I continued studying and teaching gamelan at the conservatory and academy in Solo [Surakarta, Indonesia] from 1962–68. When I was a student at the conservatory/academy, no major on puppetry was offered, but students were required to take a course on the subject. So that’s the only formal training I have received on puppeteering. But I was determined to continue learning, so I learned on my own, with occasional guidance. I still feel I am a student of the art of wayang, especially in performing wayang for a Western audience.

How does wayang kulit intersect with music in general?

Gamelan music accompanies wayang performances almost without a break. It is played to accompany entrances, exits, journeys, battles, the puppeteer’s chanting, and dialogues and narrations. Different pieces and songs are performed for the particular moods of the scenes. Kendhang (a two-headed drum) closely accompanies the puppets—certain puppets’ movements are accompanied by certain rhythmic patterns.

The puppeteer (dhalang) has complete control over the music. He (or, rarely, she) signals the ensemble to start and end the music, to cue dynamic changes, and to ask musicians to play certain pieces. The cues are conveyed by sounding a box with a mallet; there are also verbal cues and cues from certain puppet movements. The puppeteer also produces clashing sounds from a set of metal plates that he kicks against the box to accentuate the movements of the puppets. Besides delivering dialogue and narration, the puppeteer sings songs to heighten the mood of a scene.

I think that the complex connections between the play and its musical accompaniment make it difficult to stage wayang performances in the United States. Many rehearsals are needed. I am glad that I have had ample time to rehearse with the Indonesian Embassy gamelan group and with an ad hoc group consisting of gamelan teachers and players, members of the Society for Ethnomusicology.

Tell me a bit about the story that the puppets will tell on November 10.

Here’s a synopsis of Bima’s Quest for Enlightenment:

Durna, a spiritual preceptor, asks his loyal student Bima to search for divine enlightenment. To commence his quest, Bima must go to dangerous places. First, he must search for the “Tall Tree, Nest of the Wind” on the peak of Mt. Candramuka. There, Bima encounters two ferocious ogres who attempt to foil his effort—they are actually transformed gods testing his will and strength by attacking him. Bima repels and kills the giants, but he does not find the tall tree. Disappointed, he returns to Durna empty-handed.

On the second leg of Bima’s quest, his guru orders him to search for lustrating water in the depths of the ocean. Plunging himself into the sea, he is attacked by a dragon monster. Using his long, sharp nails, Bima destroys the dragon. Miraculously, a tiny figure, Dewa Ruci, appears from nowhere. He teaches Bima the highest mystical insight: the divine enlightenment, which includes some aspects of Islamic Sufi teachings.

What do you hope audiences will experience and take away from the play?

In my early years at Wesleyan, I used to perform wayang in the Javanese language. One hundred or more people came to watch the performance. However, after two hours or so, people started leaving; only a dozen stayed until the end.

Like all of my more recent performances, Thursday’s will be about two hours long and presented mostly in English. For me, performing wayang in English is an ongoing project. Finding well-constructed English sentences that suit the mood of wayang is a challenge (not to mention making sure to pronounce English words clearly). Fortunately, several wayang stories and a number of Javanese literary works from past centuries have been translated into English—they are my main references. For example, the eighteenth-century Serat Cabolek (composed by R. Ng. Yasadipura, a court poet) has been translated into English by Professor Soebardi. This classic work has sections that tell the story of Bima’s quest for enlightenment.

The November 10 performance will be a condensed version of an all-night wayang play, featuring only the main episodes of the story. But it will have almost all aspects of a wayang play, including the three-division plot structure of the story (music, fight scene, and clown scene), popular songs and local jokes, and the teaching of a mystical path.

You’ve been closely involved with Performing Indonesia from the start. Why do you feel the festival is important?

I am always happy to be part of the festival to introduce the performing arts in Indonesia, exploring the diversity of their content and context, and the crisscrossing of their national, ethnic, and religious identities. This year’s Performing Indonesia, with the theme of Islamic Intersections, is a way to introduce the dynamic formative and transformational process of performing arts in a country with the largest Muslim population in the world.

The Art of Qur’anic Recitation

Indonesian reciter Maria Ulfah

Indonesian reciter Maria Ulfah

The recent opening of the National Museum of African American History and Culture presents an opportunity to look closely at a Muslim music tradition that may have profoundly influenced black music in the United States. Historians have determined that Muslims made up about a quarter of all Africans forcibly shipped to the Americas through the slave trade. They brought with them long-standing traditions of unaccompanied vocal music that probably fared well under the ban on drums enforced by US plantation owners.

The Muslim call to prayer and the recitation of the Qur’an are marked by florid melodic lines (multiple notes to each syllable), altered notes outside Western scales, an absence of rhythm, and no instrumental accompaniment. Not surprisingly, a vocal tradition developed among African Americans that bears remarkable similarities to this Muslim heritage—the field holler, a genre that probably predated and influenced the blues.

When historian Sylviane Diouf gave public talks following the 1998 publication of her book Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas, she began by playing audio samples of these two traditions side-by-side. You can hear historic recordings of field hollers on the Library of Congress website, such as this one by Enoch Brown recorded in Alabama in 1939. Compare for yourself by listening to Indonesian reciter Maria Ulfah, who will lead our lecture-demonstration on Qur’anic recitation on Saturday, November 5, at 2 pm at the Hammer Auditorium of the Corcoran School of the Arts and Design. The event is free—no tickets required—and presented as part of Performing Indonesia: Islamic Intersections.

Performing Indonesia: Ismunandar

This year's Performing Indonesia festival includes a shadow puppet play on November 10.

This year’s Performing Indonesia festival includes a shadow puppet play on November 10.

Performing Indonesia: Islamic Intersections, our third festival of Indonesian music, dance, and theater, celebrates some of the many manifestations of Islamic culture in the island nation, which is home to more Muslims than any other country. We’re interviewing some of the people involved with the festival. Ismunandar, head of the education and culture section at the Embassy of Indonesia in Washington, DC, helped plan the 2016 celebration of all things Indonesia. Here, he explains this year’s theme.

Some people associate Islam only with the Middle East. Although Islam was born in that region, Muslims are spread out all over the earth. Globally, there are 1.7 billion Muslims, from the Middle East to Africa, from Latin America to Southeast Asia. Indonesia’s Muslim population is larger than that of the Middle East region.

We are proud that the long history of Islamization in Indonesia has been a peaceful one. Cultural expressions of various ethnic groups were not lost but influenced by Islam. The result is a diversity of expression in the performing arts. This is what inspired the Islamic Intersections subtitle: it summarizes our efforts to show the kaleidoscope encounter of Islam with Indonesian cultures. The theme also complements the Freer|Sackler’s landmark exhibition The Art of the Qur’an, now on view.

In this year’s Performing Indonesia, we proudly present a diversity of Indonesian arts, from the traditional and classic to the contemporary and secular. On Thursday, November 10, for example, we will host a shadow puppet show. This ancient art form was utilized by the Wali Songo, the nine revered saints who first spread Islam in Indonesia during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

Another way to demonstrate Islam in Indonesia culture is through Qur’anic recitation. In Indonesia, these recitations are performed not only as rituals, but also for festive occasions ranging from national anniversaries to wedding receptions. Plus, every year, a Qur’an recitation competition is held in Indonesia, starting in the districts and reaching the national level. Experience a taste for yourself on Saturday, November 5.

For those of you who are more academically minded, the festival also features a series of lectures. And there are workshops on martial arts and shadow-puppet painting for children and families to enjoy. We hope you’ll join us!

A Monumental Qur’an

Two folios from a Qur’an; sura 45:9–13, 45:13–16; attributed to Omar Aqta‘; historic Iran, present-day Uzbekistan, probably Samarqand, Timurid period, ca. 1400; ink, color, and gold on paper; lent by the Art and History Collection, Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, LTS1995.2.16.1 and LTS1995.2.16.2

Two folios from a Qur’an; sura 45:9–13, 45:13–16; attributed to Omar Aqta‘; historic Iran, present-day Uzbekistan, probably Samarqand, Timurid period, ca. 1400; ink, color, and gold on paper; lent by the Art and History Collection, Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, LTS1995.2.16.1 and LTS1995.2.16.2

The content of the Qur’an has not changed since the beginning of Islam in the seventh century. By choosing different sizes, formats, materials, calligraphic styles, and illumination, however, artists have created a stunning variety of Qur’anic manuscripts through the ages.

These consecutive folios, written in majestic muhaqqaq script, belong to one of the largest and most impressive Qur’ans ever produced in the Islamic world. They were originally attributed to Baysunghur (died 1433), a Timurid prince and an accomplished calligrapher who governed the vibrant cultural and artistic center of Herat. More recently, they have been associated with his grandfather Timur, who established a vast empire centered on Iran and Central Asia.

Allegedly, the left-handed calligrapher Omar Aqta‘ wanted to impress Timur (Tamerlane, 1336–1405) with his skill. He copied a Qur’an that was so small it fit into a signet ring. When the sovereign was unimpressed, Omar Aqta‘ then transcribed a second Qur’an that was so large it had to be transported to the palace in a wheelbarrow. This time Timur was extremely pleased, and he rewarded the calligrapher accordingly. These folios are believed to be among the few remaining examples of the enormous manuscript that was displayed in Timur’s mosque in Samarqand, the first Timurid capital.

Curators Massumeh Farhad and Simon Rettig with a monumental Qur'an. Photo c/o AP.

Curators Massumeh Farhad and Simon Rettig with a monumental Qur’an. Photo c/o AP.

Rediscovering Afghan Designs

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I opened up the package and gave a yelp. Inside was a small book of about one hundred pages stapled together, featuring text in Dari—one of the languages of Afghanistan—and floral and geometric motifs. The document was a little ripped and bleached with age, but otherwise looked in pretty good nick.

A small note revealed that the book had been sent to me by a ninety-something visitor named Leila Poullada. Two weeks before, I had given a curator’s tour of my exhibition Turquoise Mountain: Artists Transforming Afghanistan. This tiny, birdlike lady had concentrated intensely during my talk and asked me rounds of quick-fire questions afterward, in which she proved herself deeply knowledgeable and insightful. We sat chatting for forty minutes in the middle of the exhibition as she told me about her life and travels.

It turns out that Leila had lived in Afghanistan in the 1960s, moving with her husband, Leon Poullada, a US diplomat and scholar of Afghanistan. Poullada is a major name in the historiography of Afghanistan, having written one of the main accounts of the country in the early twentieth century. I knew his work well from my time as a PhD student of Afghan history.

US Ambassador Leon Poullada stands to the left of President John F. Kennedy. Image c/o Abbie Rowe. White House Photographs. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston

US Ambassador Leon Poullada stands to the left of President John F. Kennedy in this 1961 photograph. Image c/o Abbie Rowe. White House Photographs. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston

Leon had died several decades ago, Leila told me, and she now lives in a condominium in St. Louis, Missouri. She still keeps in touch with friends from their Afghanistan days. Leila had been a great traveler in Afghanistan, visiting sites like the remote Minaret of Jam that are now extremely difficult for people to reach. She had seen more of the country than I had in all my years there.

The book Leila sent was one of many that she had collected during her time in Afghanistan. Titled Afghan Designs, it was printed in Kabul in 1967. It is a design book for teachers of art and craft skills, containing patterns found in buildings and sites across the country.

I recently spent a few years working with artisans in Afghanistan—woodworkers, calligraphers, jewelers, ceramicists—as part of the Turquoise Mountain organization. As explored in the Freer|Sackler exhibition, we focus on preserving and reviving techniques and designs that have fallen or were in danger of falling out of use. Here in Leila’s book were hundreds and hundreds of those designs, recorded and detailed by researchers in the 1960s. I recognized many from buildings that Turquoise Mountain has restored in the old city district of Murad Khani in Kabul, designs that were often carved into Himalayan cedar or wet clay up in the pottery village of Istalif.

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Aside from the practical uses of the work for Turquoise Mountain students in Kabul, I was struck by the nature of the designs. From the several hundred varieties that the researchers had collected, more than three-quarters are plant and flower motifs. Only a few are purely geometric, and about a fifth are a mix of geometric and floral. In a country with such a rich appreciation of flowers and gardening, it is interesting to see how this focus has played out historically in designs that artisans use in their work. It also challenges the common misapprehension that geometric design is the overwhelming mode used in the decorative arts of the Islamic world.

I’ll be taking the book back to where it belongs—Kabul—on my next trip over. I’m very grateful to Leila Poullada for sharing it with me.

Secretary Skorton on “The Art of the Qur’an”

Qur’an; calligrapher: Abd al-Qadir b. Abd al-Wahhab b. Shahmir al-Husayni; Iran, Shiraz, Safavid period, ca. 1580; ink, color, and gold on paper; each page 58 x 39 cm; Istanbul, Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts

Qur’an; calligrapher: Abd al-Qadir b. Abd al-Wahhab b. Shahmir al-Husayni; Iran, Shiraz, Safavid period, ca. 1580; ink, color, and gold on paper; each page 58 x 39 cm; Istanbul, Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts

Starting tomorrow, our visitors have a rare opportunity to see some of the most beautiful and precious religious manuscripts ever created. In the words of Smithsonian Secretary David J. Skorton:

“At a time when cultural differences can provoke division and conflict, The Art of the Qur’an opens the door to understanding. I urge you to see this stunning exhibition—the culmination of years of research, diplomacy and serendipity—and recommend it to others.”

Read the rest of Secretary Skorton’s take on The Art of the Qur’an on the Torch.

Performing Indonesia: Music from Sulawesi and West Java

Tricia Sumarijanto conducting the House of Angklung.

Tricia Sumarijanto conducting the House of Angklung.

Performing Indonesia: Islamic Intersections, our third festival of Indonesian music, dance, and theater, celebrates the many manifestations of Islamic culture in the island nation, which is home to more Muslims than any other country. We’re interviewing some of the more than eighty musicians, dancers and other performing artists who will appear throughout the festival’s run. Tricia Sumarijanto is a leading ambassador for the music of angklung, which UNESCO has named intangible cultural heritage from Indonesia. She also is cofounder of Rumah Indonesia and conductor of the House of Angklung, which will perform at Music from Sulawesi and West Java this Saturday. 

 

Tell me a bit about your personal history with Indonesian music.

My musical interest started quite early, focusing on the piano, organ, and angklung. As part of a Javanese family living in the capital city, I did not really listen to Indonesian traditional music. The angklung is the only traditional Indonesian instrument I play. I first played it when I was in elementary school as part of music class. I think most schools in Indonesia teach students to play the angklung because it is such an easy and fun instrument.

I didn’t play the instrument again until I came to the United States in 2007. The House of Angklung (known back then as Rumpun Wargi Pasundan) was looking for a new conductor when someone heard me playing piano in a friend’s house. I was asked to be their teacher, and I accepted.

Since 2009, I have been the music arranger and conductor of House of Angklung. We have become a solid community group and have performed in many different cities and states.

Why do you work to introduce American audiences to angklung music?

The House of Angklung participated in a 2011 Guinness World Records event at the Washington Monument, where more than 5,100 people played angklung together. The experience opened my eyes to the fact that the angklung is an effective tool for introducing Indonesia to the American people.

My most recent programming, Angklung Goes to School, promotes Indonesia in general and angklung in particular to a younger generation of Americans by bringing education on the instrument to schools and universities. With the support of House of Angklung and the Indonesian Embassy, the program is now active in DC, Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, and it will soon arrive in Wisconsin and North Carolina. In the DMV and Philadelphia, the program has already reached more than 2,000 students. In fact, students in the Angklung Goes to School program performed at the Freer|Sackler as part of the 2014 Performing Indonesia festival.

Angklung Goes to School

Angklung Goes to School

What can audiences expect from the performance on October 22? What do you hope they take away?

The audience will hear the unique sound of bamboo in the angklung in harmony with the sound of wood in the kolintang and other instruments. The angklung is from West Java, where the majority of people are Muslim, and the kolintang is from Minahasa, Sulawesi, where the majority are Christian.

The song selection is a picture of how diverse Indonesia is. We have more than 17,000 islands and about 600 dialects. Indonesian music and arts are influenced by many other cultures, such as those of Spain, India, China, and the Middle East. Despite how diverse it is, Indonesia is one nation, with its motto of “Unity in Diversity.”

I also hope that the audience will see how these ancient instruments can perform modern songs, including Western songs, in the spirit of the philosophy of the angklung: teamwork, mutual respect, and social harmony. Finally, this performance is to show how different religions and cultures interact peacefully in Indonesia through the universal language of music.

Art & Me: Conservators in Training

Conservator Ellen Chase works with program participants on reassembling their “ceramic” puzzles during the first Art and Me workshop.

Conservator Ellen Chase works with program participants on reassembling their “ceramic” puzzles during the first Art & Me workshop.

Calling all children ages 3–5 with adult companions! Registration is now open for an art conservation workshop where art and science will collide. On Sunday, October 23, join conservator Ellen Chase to see what goes into preserving precious art objects made of silver. Look at silver works on a gallery tour, and then return to the ImaginAsia classroom to make silver-inspired creations using your newly acquired conservation skills.

This workshop marks the second in a series of Art & Me workshops focusing on art conservation for children ages 3–5. If you are not able to join us in October, here’s a fun activity to try at home, inspired by our May 2016 workshop.

Adrian having fun trying on conservator’s gear at our first workshop in May 2016.

Adrian having fun trying on a conservator’s gear at our first workshop in May 2016.

Become an Art Conservator: The Basics
Your future as an art conservator begins now! There are 40,000 works of art at the Freer|Sackler. How does the museum take care of them all? Cleaning, preserving, and occasionally repairing works of art is known as art conservation, and the people who do this specialized work are called conservators. Art conservators make sure that art and historical objects stay safe for the future—so that they will be there when you grow up and even when your grandchildren grow up.

Try this: Sometimes, the best way to learn is to try things out yourself! Conservators look at objects very carefully to learn about how they are made and to figure out what they need to do to preserve them. Explore your home, and choose an object that’s important and special to you. Look carefully at your special object. What do you see? Do you think that there any parts missing? Would you say it is clean or dirty?

Write down why your object is important to you, and draw a picture of it. Send in your response and picture, and we’ll send back a conservator-in-training button as a prize!

Insider’s tip: It can be hard to see a familiar thing with fresh eyes. Try using a magnifying glass as you examine your object.

Head to our families page to find more events and resources for young museum visitors.

Welcoming NMAAHC with “Kung Fu Wildstyle”

Fab 5 Freddy's portrait in the National Portrait Gallery

Fab 5 Freddy’s portrait in the National Portrait Gallery

The opening of the National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) is such a major event that fellow Smithsonian museums will spend the next year celebrating it. Here at the Freer|Sackler, we are cooking up, in collaboration with the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center, a month-long celebration of the deep—and sometimes surprising—connections among African American, Asian American, and Asian pop culture. These connections formed when the rappers and break-dancers who pioneered hip-hop in New York started incorporating moves from Hong Kong martial arts movies they had binge-watched in Manhattan theaters—and they continue to flourish today.

One of those pioneers is the incomparable Fab Five Freddy. As the first graffiti artist to have his work exhibited in commercial galleries, Fab was a bridge between the uptown hip-hop scene and the downtown art and new wave music scenes in the 1970s and ’80s. (As a tween growing up in rural Pennsylvania obsessed with Blondie, I first heard of him in the band’s megahit “Rapture.”)

Since those early days as a fixture in New York, Fab has been, among other things, a television star (as the host of Yo! MTV Raps) and a music video director. In fact, his impact on the hip-hop and art worlds is so impressive that the Smithsonian itself has recognized it: a portrait of him currently hangs in the National Portrait Gallery, and the iconic boombox that was always by his side back in the day is now in the collection of the National Museum of American History.

Fab's boombox at the National Museum of American History

Fab’s boombox at the National Museum of American History

A few years ago, Fab reconnected with an old buddy, Sean Dinsmore, who now lives in Hong Kong. Dinsmore told him about a street artist there named MC Yan, whose work was inspired by what Fab and his friends had done three decades earlier and half a world away.

Amazed and flattered, Fab struck up a friendship with Yan, and Kung Fu Wildstyle was born. A dialogue between these two artists in the form of paintings of the legendary movie star Bruce Lee, this pop-up exhibition has already popped up in Shanghai, Hong Kong, and New York. In 2017, it comes to the Freer|Sackler, along with a plethora of film screenings, discussions, and performances exploring these long-running cross-cultural connections.

Fab and Sean

Fab and Sean

In September, Fab, Sean, and I convened in Fab’s studio for a brainstorming session that resulted in what I think will be some truly amazing, fun, and informative events to be held at the Freer|Sackler, NMAAHC, and possibly elsewhere. I can’t reveal the details now, but be sure to mark your calendars for what we hope will be an entirely new Smithsonian experience welcoming an entirely new kind of museum to the fold.

High Fashion for Muslim Wear

A scene from the Performing Indonesia fashion show on September 10.

A scene from the Performing Indonesia fashion show on September 10.

New designs from Java strutted down the catwalk on September 10, kicking off this year’s Performing Indonesia festival and its theme of Islamic Intersections. Held at the Corcoran School of Arts and Design, the fashion show featured fresh garments for Muslim women created by Meeta Fauzen and Helen Dewi Krana, two leading designers from Indonesia. Fauzen took the time to answer a few questions about her creations.

Bento: Why have you been inspired to design for Muslim women?

Meeta Fauzen: After returning from the hajj, I started to wear Muslim dress. I wanted to create Muslim wear that fits my style. I learned how to design Muslim women’s fashion to give people more choices.

B: How would you describe your design aesthetic or approach?

MF: My design aesthetic is simple and elegant, to make it easy for Muslim women. And I mix my designs with Indonesian traditional fabrics such as batik and tenun.

B: How have your designs been received at home and abroad?

MF: In Indonesia, I have several customers in my hometown, Bandung, and in other cities such as Bogor, Jakarta, Surabaya, and Batam. And from abroad, I have also some clients in countries where I’ve done my show, such as Perth, Kuala Lumpur, the United States, and eastern Europe, although it’s not a big number yet.

There were big numbers for the show on September 10: a capacity crowd of two hundred guests filled the Corcoran Gallery atrium. The runway presentation was preceded by a lecture and discussion with anthropologist Carla Jones of the University of Colorado, as well as a Q&A with the designers.

The Performing Indonesia festival is made possible through a partnership with the Embassy of Indonesia, and this year is held in cooperation with George Washington University. See what’s in store.