Tag Archives: Buddhist

Goryeo Buddhist Painting: A Closer Look

Detail, Bodhisattva Kshitigarbha (Jijang bosal); Korean, late 13th or early 14th century; hanging scroll, ink, color, and gold on silk; anonymous gift, S1992.11

Detail, Bodhisattva Kshitigarbha (Jijang bosal); Korean, late 13th or early 14th century; hanging scroll, ink, color, and gold on silk; anonymous gift, S1992.11

Painted in rich reds, greens, and blues patterned with gold, exquisite Goryeo Buddhist paintings survive in very small numbers. Scholars have identified fewer than 160 examples worldwide. Still shrouded in mystery, this genre of Korean religious icon seems to date almost exclusively to around the fourteenth century.

The Goryeo dynasty (pronounced Ko-ree-o, the root of Korea’s modern moniker) lasted from 918 to 1392 and is considered a golden age of artistic and cultural development. The Buddhist images created at the time reflect the strength of the Pure Land tradition, which promises believers rebirth in paradise. The works feature specific buddhas and bodhisattvas who help followers achieve this goal. Through centuries of warfare and loss, most of the paintings left the Korean Peninsula. They now survive in large part in Japanese temple collections.

The tradition has only re-emerged from obscurity in the past few decades as researchers have begun to identify specific visual characteristics that unite the works. These features include delicately painted garments, saturated mineral pigments accented with gold, and illusionary effects such as transparency. Although these similarities are now well-documented, there is still much to discover about the paintings’ artistic methods and cultural context.

Detail, Water-Moon Avalokitesvara (Suwol Gwaneum bosal); Korea, mid-14th century; hanging scroll; ink, color, and gold on silk; Gift of Charles Lang Freer, F1904.13

Detail, Water-Moon Avalokitesvara (Suwol Gwaneum bosal); Korea, mid-14th century; hanging scroll; ink, color, and gold on silk; Gift of Charles Lang Freer, F1904.13

Scholars and specialists who work to unravel the mysteries of these paintings will visit the Freer|Sackler in March for our symposium Goryeo Buddhist Painting: A Closer Look. Celebrating a new digital catalogue that features sixteen Goryeo Buddhist paintings in US museums, the event will introduce new research into the works’ historical, religious, and geographic contexts. English-language versions of all papers will be provided at the symposium, as presentations will be given in Japanese, Korean, or English.

Discover more art objects from the Goryeo dynasty in our collection, and zoom in to see the delicate details of Goryeo Buddhist paintings.

Seventeen Angry Heads

Seventeen Angry Heads; Central Tibet, 15th century; gilt copper alloy with inlays of semiprecious stones; Purchase—Friends of Asian Arts in honor of the 10th Anniversary of the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery; S1997.27

Seventeen Angry Heads; Saptadashashirshi Shri Devi; Central Tibet, 15th century; gilt copper alloy with inlays of semiprecious stones; Purchase—Friends of Asian Arts in honor of the 10th Anniversary of the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery; S1997.27

Howling in anger and wearing skulls as ornaments, this goddess is a fierce form of the compassionate and beautiful Tara. Buddhist deities are peaceful, enlightened beings, but sometimes their passion turns to rage—particularly when they are protecting devotees and sacred teachings. A master craftsman sculpted her seventeen human and animal heads.

The sculpture was once part of a frieze (a horizontal band of painted or carved images) on a shrine at Densatil, a Buddhist monastery in Tibet. The monastery burned down in the 1960s, and fragments from the frieze were acquired by American and European collections. Experience these seventeen heads of ferocity in our galleries of South Asian and Himalayan art.

Vote for the Cosmic Buddha in SI’s Summer Showdown!

Cosmic Buddha (Buddha draped in robes portraying the Realms of Existence); China, probably Henan province, Northern Qi dynasty, (550-577); Limestone; Purchase; F1923.15

Cosmic Buddha (Buddha draped in robes portraying the Realms of Existence); China, probably Henan province, Northern Qi dynasty, (550-577); Limestone; Purchase; F1923.15

Voting begins today for the Smithsonian’s Summer Showdown. Last year more than 90,000 people from across the country voted for their favorite object in the Smithsonian. This year, Freer|Sackler is represented by the Cosmic Buddha, one of our most iconic images that is currently on view in the exhibition, Promise of Paradise: Early Chinese Buddhist Sculpture.

Like all Buddhas (fully enlightened beings), this life-size limestone figure of Vairochana, the Cosmic Buddha, is wrapped in the simple robe of a monk. What makes this object exceptional are the detailed narrative scenes that cover its surface. They represent not only moments in the life of the Historical Buddha but also the “Realms of Existence,” a symbolic map of the Buddhist world. Heaven appears at the top toward the shoulders, while various hells are at the bottom, along the hem of the figure’s robe. Humans, animals, spirits, and demigods reside between the two.

With help from the Smithsonian’s Digitization Program Office, the Cosmic Buddha also exists as a 3D model. This format enables scholars to study the work as never before, and it provides worldwide access to this masterpiece of Buddhist sculpture.

Vote for this amazing object in #SIShowdown!