Aleppo: An Ancient City of Enduring Appeal

Citadel from outside Bab Antakiya, Ernst Herzfeld Papers

Citadel of Aleppo from outside Bab Antakiya, Ernst Herzfeld Papers

The Syrian city of Aleppo has sadly received a lot of coverage recently due to the widespread destruction from years of civil war. In spite of this, the city is still one of the great architectural treasures of the Middle East, which has drawn travelers and scholars for centuries.

Citadel of Aleppo (Syria): early 19th century etching, Ernst Herzfeld Papers

Museum founder Charles Lang Freer visited the city in 1908, no doubt in his search for the lustrous pottery type associated with the nearby city of Raqqa. Although travel conditions prevented a visit to Raqqa, Freer was delighted with Aleppo, writing on June 19 to his business partner Frank Hecker, “Aleppo is a charming surprise – a beautiful ancient city, and in every way more attractive than I had fancied.” Among the hundreds of photographs he collected of Asia and the Middle East are twelve lovely views in and around Aleppo, likely acquired during his visit.

Photograph of Aleppo collected by Charles Lang Freer

Photograph of Aleppo collected by Charles Lang Freer, Charles Lang Freer Papers

Likewise, the renowned German scholar Ernst Herzfeld traveled many times to Aleppo during his decades of research and exploration in the Middle East. While his historical inscriptions of Aleppo were not published until after his death, the extraordinary number of drawings, photographs, and research notes in the Herzfeld collection is an important repository for the study of the city’s architectural heritage, so imperiled by recent conflicts.

Interior of the Great Synagogue of Aleppo

Interior of the Great Synagogue of Aleppo, Ernst Herzfeld Papers

In support of the people of Aleppo, this month we have combined selections from these two collections into a slide show, currently on display outside of the museum shop and on YouTube.

Music from the Muslim World at the Freer|Sackler

image of Naseer Shamma’s Al-Oyoun Ensemble

Naseer Shamma and his ensemble perform at the Freer|Sackler.

The Muslim world is deeply represented not only in the visual arts at the Freer|Sackler but also among our concert podcasts, which are enhanced with program notes, photos, and images of related artwork. These concerts feature musicians from across the Islamic world covering genres ranging from traditional and classical to jazz and crossover styles.

One special treat is a performance by the Cairo-based composer and ‘ud (lute) artist Naseer Shamma, a native of Iraq who studied at the Baghdad Conservatory before relocating to Egypt. He appeared at the Freer in 2012 during his first US tour in ten years. His evocative solos and refreshing arrangements feature an ensemble of ‘ud, violin, flute (nay), dulcimer (qanun), cello, and percussion.

Another Iraqi-born ‘ud artist, Omar Bashir (now based in Budapest), played original music to celebrate the legacy of his legendary father, Munir Bashir, widely considered the greatest ‘ud master of the twentieth century. Omar performed gorgeous improvisations on Arab modes (maqams) in addition to several of his father’s most famous compositions, including Love and Peace, Seville, and Andalusian Señora.

Rahim Alhaj, who studied under Munir Bashir, was joined by percussionist Souhail Kaspar to perform selections from his Grammy-nominated album When the Soul Is Settled: Music of Iraq. For a jazz take on Arab music, the Iraqi American trumpeter Amir ElSaffar and his quintet performed Two Rivers, an original work inspired by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, the recent strife in Iraq, and the common ground between American jazz and Iraqi classical music.

Jazz artist Amir ElSaffar and his ensemble perform at the Freer|Sackler.

Jazz artist Amir ElSaffar and his ensemble perform at the Freer|Sackler.

Three-time Grammy nominee Kayhan Kalhor is a virtuoso on the Persian fiddle (kamānche) and an original member of Yo-Yo Ma’s Silk Road Ensemble. He has appeared repeatedly at the Freer to perform Persian and Persian-inspired music. Kayhan opened and closed this recital in the melodic mode called rāst-panjgāh, which is comparable to the Western major scale, but (like all Persian modes) has its own trademark phrases and moods. Rāst-panjgāh expresses mostly positive sentiments but, in its lower range, conveys a more serene and contemplative mood. In between these opening and closing solos, Kayhan offered a thirty-minute meditation on the ancient mode called segāh, one of the oldest in Persian music.

image of Persian Classical Music: Kayhan Kalhor, kamanche

Kayhan Kalhor performs at the Freer|Sackler.

Another giant in Persian music is the two-time Grammy nominee Hossein Alizadeh, a master of the Persian lutes called tar and setar. In addition to his performing career, he wrote the soundtracks for the Iranian films GabbehTurtles Can Fly, and A Time for Drunken Horses, all screened in the United States and internationally. A fascinating instrument of Persia is the delicate yet powerful santur (hammered dulcimer), played here at the Freer by two wonderful Iranian American artists, Dariush Saghafi and Kazem Davoudian.

image of Masters of the Persian Santur: Dariush Saghafi and Kazem Davoudian

Santur artists Dariush Saghafi and Kazem Davoudian perform at the Freer|Sackler.

Among the younger generation of Persian classical musicians is Paris-based virtuoso Bahman Panahi, who performed at the Freer on setar (lute) with percussionist Ali Mojallal. They played entirely in the mode named for Iran’s ancient capital city, Esfahan. For an original take on Persian vocal music, listen to this concert by Los Angeles-based vocalist Mamak Khadem recorded during our annual Nowruz (Persian New Year) celebration. She adapted melodies from Iran as well as Armenia, Kurdistan, Baluchistan, and Turkey, accompanied by an unusual ensemble of clarinet, saxophone, keyboard, santur (hammered dulcimer), and percussion.

Mamak Khadem and her ensemble

Vocalist Mamak Khadem and her ensemble perform at the Freer|Sackler.

One of our most unusual podcasts from the Muslim world is our 2013 concert by artists from Iran and Syria who joined together to perform a program they called Sound: The Encounter. These four jazz-oriented musicians—Saeid and Naghib Shanbehzadeh, Basel Rajoub, and Kenan Adnawi—merged Middle Eastern traditions with modern improvisations on bagpipe, double clarinet, saxophone, ‘ud, and drums. You won’t hear anything like it anywhere else.

Also in the jazz idiom, Lebanese pianist Tarek Yamani performed his renditions of classic Egyptian songs from the 1950s. Folk-based music is heard on our podcast by the Saudi Ensemble, including melodies for weddings, fishing expeditions, love songs, and other occasions performed on violin, ‘ud (lute), nay (flute), tabla (drum), and qanun (zither). Our only podcast of musicians from Palestine features faculty of the Edward Said National Conservatory of Music in Jerusalem from their debut American tour. The conservatory was famously endorsed by both Edward Said and conductor Daniel Barenboim for its teaching of Western and Arab music to Palestinian youth. For a taste of gorgeous music from the Turkish Ottoman period, listen to the outstanding Neva Duo on tanbur (lute) and ney (flute).

Our music from Islamic cultures extends beyond the Middle East to music from India, including the Chisti Sufi Sama Ensemble as well as gamelan music from the country with the world’s largest Muslim population, Indonesia.

Teaching about World Religions

Teaching about world religions through scriptural, literary, and artistic sources is an excellent way to introduce students to diverse traditions and cultures. However, using such information in the classroom can often be challenging and confusing. To explore this topic, two daylong professional development workshops for educators took place at the museum during the recent exhibition The Art of the Qur’an. Held on on November 5, 2016, and January 28, 2017, the workshops, titled “Exploring World Religions: Focus on Islam,” were organized by the Freer|Sackler and the Center for Contemporary Arab Studies (CCAS) at Georgetown University. More than fifty educators attended.

I recently asked Dr. Susan Douglass, K–14 education outreach coordinator at CCAS, about her work at the center and the impact of our work together.

As an educator, how do you resolve the need for a more inclusive worldview in the face of forces that seem to be pulling us in the opposite direction?

I am a world historian, and I believe that learning about the entire human experience on a global level is as important a civic enterprise as learning about the United States or any country’s national history. We are all citizens of nations whose formation is a modern phenomenon, but our common roots go back to the Africans who ventured across the continents tens of thousands of years ago. We have, in short, common origins. Knowing how human cultures interacted to give our generation the gifts and challenges that we share lends us a sense of responsibility for the future that overshadows artificial divisions. The United States is among the most diverse nations, and we have found a way to live together that we can maintain if we insist on elevating knowledge over ignorance of one another, and [on] encouraging respectful speech and behavior toward one another.

What messages and approaches do you hope the teachers in the workshop took back to their classrooms?

The once-in-a-lifetime The Art of the Qur’an exhibition gave visitors a chance to discover the Qur’an as a scripture [and] what stories it tells. I hope that teachers gained familiarity with it as a meaningful historical document on that level. The exhibit and the lectures also showed the artistic care given to preserving the Qur’an and refining its expression in Arabic script. I hope the teachers gained an appreciation for the technical process of calligraphy and illumination, and for the sheer beauty of the manuscripts and other objects. In fact, the teachers expressed great appreciation for the workshop and felt that their day at the gallery was a wonderful one.

Teachers have an opportunity to influence students’ perspectives about others. How can art provide a non-threatening way to explore tricky issues of race, religion, and identity?

One of the remarkable things about the exhibition that [didn’t] jump out at first glance is that these works represent the thought, effort, and artistry of people who belonged to a vast array of ethnicities and linguistic backgrounds, who coalesced around the Arabic Qur’an without necessarily being Arabs [themselves]. Those artists also represented enormous class differences over time, from common people elevated by their commitment to belief to those whose acquired skill brought them royal commissions to illuminate the manuscripts with powdered gold and precious stones.

The art of beautiful writing is a shared human contribution to the continuity of learning that transcends loss over time. I try to expose teachers and students to primary source documents that show how people of many faiths contributed to the preservation of knowledge. Because of their commitment to knowledge, they were willing and able to transcend individual differences to build bridges of continuity across time. Without such diverse people’s love of learning, we would have lost the link to valuable accumulated knowledge. In short, if we cannot overcome trivial differences to work toward the common good, we face tremendous loss that will affect all of us. Putting evidence of this continuity of human achievement in front of the public is among the most important functions of art museums.

As a convert to Islam, you have a foot in more than one world. What insight have you gained about how others may view your adopted faith?

I have been a practicing Muslim for more than forty years, or about two-thirds of my life. I have spent time in Germany, Egypt, and the US as a Muslim, each offering very different perspectives that have changed over time with world events. I find it easy to locate common ground with the people with whom I interact directly, who often include educators, but also people of many walks of life. A lot of the problem with Islamophobia is that many people have never met a Muslim—or don’t think they have. In fact, they may very well not have known the person’s religious identity. There are certainly distinctive elements in the many different Muslim cultures with which I am acquainted, but they all have much in common with who I am as a person raised in Cleveland, Ohio, in a family with Scotch-Irish and German immigrant roots going back to the eighteenth century. In order to overcome real and perceived divisions, it is necessary to learn about each other’s deepest differences, but also our common hopes and dreams for a just society and sustainable world.

Meet our Volunteer: Michael Ruddell

Bottle; Korea, late 18th–19th century; Bunwon ware; porcelain with transparent, pale blue glaze; Gift of Graenum and Emma Berger and Elizabeth Lee Berger in memory of Ambassador Samuel D. Berger; F1980.188

Bottle; Korea, late 18th–19th century; Bunwon ware; porcelain with transparent, pale blue glaze; Gift of Graenum and Emma Berger and Elizabeth Lee Berger in memory of Ambassador Samuel D. Berger; F1980.188

Michael Ruddell has volunteered at the Freer|Sackler since 2016 as a Visitor Information Specialist (VIS). VIS provide essential services to the Smithsonian by offering a warm welcome and useful information to our visitors about exhibitions, activities, services, and more. I recently asked him a few questions about his work at the museum.

What drew you to the Freer|Sackler?

I’ve volunteered at Freer|Sackler for a year this month. For as long as I have lived in the DC area, I have been wandering through the Smithsonian museums. This has been a great opportunity for me to get more involved and to learn about art, history, and the people who value and create it.

What’s the most satisfying experience about volunteering for the museum?

As a Volunteer Information Specialist, I get to serve as an ambassador and public face of the Smithsonian Institution, which is very exciting. I really enjoy witnessing how our visitors experience the museum. It’s a lot of fun and very rewarding to hear their perspectives on the art and to learn from the many kinds of people who come to visit.

Can you share a memorable interaction with a visitor you have had?

Throughout the course of the Turquoise Mountain exhibition [on view through October 29, 2017], I [have been] lucky enough to meet some of the artisans from Afghanistan who came to demonstrate their skills in calligraphy, ceramics, and other arts for us at the museum. They were incredibly kind and extraordinarily talented. I watched them working and got to listen in on their conversations with the visitors.

I particularly remember watching Abdul Matin Malekzadah create a beautiful and intricate clay teapot in a matter of minutes (lid, handle, spout, and all) with a traditional potter’s wheel in the gallery, to the amazement of the visitors watching. When he had finished a piece, he would unceremoniously lump it all together and begin again on something different. The visitors’ reactions were priceless.

What’s your favorite artwork in the collection?

I’ve come to love the ceramics in the collection since I started volunteering, especially the Korean pieces. I like to think about the people who molded these shapes and worked so hard to produced these colors. I’m sure [museum founder Charles Lang] Freer would have loved a bottle like this one—it’s gorgeous.